Fred Hoyle is the person that discovered how carbon is made. All life on earth is made out of carbon be it vegetable or animal, and diamonds as well. Carbon is made by the collision of 3 helium atoms simultaneously an event so rare, the odds of it happening are astronomical and yet without it the human condition would not be possible. We are indeed stardust. Forged in the heart of suns. It is a veritable lapis philosophorum, the philosopher stone, the holy grail of life.
It was the only time that the anthropic principle was used with success, which is to say that if the universe exists in order to create conscious life this would have to be the case. It was the use of the anthropic principle that enabled Fred Hoyle to solve the problem of how carbon was created and the reason for his conversion from atheism.
In astrophysics and cosmology, the anthropic principle (from Greek anthropos, meaning “human”) is the philosophical consideration that observations of the physical Universemust be compatible with the conscious life that observes it. Some proponents of the anthropic principle reason that it explains why the Universe has the age and the fundamental physical constants necessary to accommodate conscious life. As a result, they believe it is unremarkable that the universe’s fundamental constants happen to fall within thenarrow range thought to be compatible with life.
The strong anthropic principle (SAP) as explained by Barrow and Tipler (see variants) states that this is all the case because the Universe is compelled, in some sense, for conscious life to eventually emerge. Critics of the SAP argue in favor of a weak anthropic principle (WAP) similar to the one defined by Brandon Carter, which states that theuniverse’s ostensible fine tuning is the result of selection bias: i.e., only in a universe capable of eventually supporting life will there be living beings capable of observing any such fine tuning, while a universe less compatible with life will go unbeheld. ~wikipedia